The main role of the diet is to provide adequate nutrition based on metabolic needs, thus giving consumers a feeling of fullness. The threshold of the new frontiers of nutrition science has deviated from past priorities such as survival and hunger. This helps to transcend the negative effects on health, with a particular focus on the use of foods needed to promote health, thereby reducing the likelihood of disease. Given the rising cost of health care, the desire of older people to improve their quality of life and the steady increase in life expectancy in us, these concepts cannot be ignored.
The recycling of health care products has caused the food and beverage market to attract the interest of companies, thereby increasing the enthusiasm of consumers to purchase functional foods.
The rapid increase in consumer awareness and the great interest in the health improvement of specific foods or physiologically active food ingredients is a trend that converges on a variety of key factors, namely, due to an inadequate selection of convenience foods in daily life. Personal health deterioration, as well as insignificant physical activity, higher self-medication rates, higher levels of understanding of nutrition by health authorities and the media, and a strong link between nutrition and health.
Non-dairy probiotic products are of global importance due to the continuing trend of vegetarianism and the high prevalence of lactose intolerance among different populations worldwide. Disadvantages associated with dairy intake include lactose intolerance, cholesterol levels and allergic milk proteins, which makes the development of new non-dairy probiotic foods critical.
After taking milk, there are many gastrointestinal symptoms in the stomach and intestines. Because of the ability to completely digest lactose in the gastrointestinal tract, a false diagnosis can occur. In order to correctly identify whether the symptoms after ingesting milk and dairy products are actually caused by the digestion of lactose, a diagnostic test is required.
The hydrogen breath test is the most widely used technique for diagnosing lactose malabsorption.
Experimental principle: In the excretion of lungs and other gases, lactose that is not absorbed by the colon can be detected. After ingesting lactose within 3-6 hours, the concentration of respiratory hydrogen was greater than 20 ppm of cyclone concentration, indicating lactose indigestion.
It should be noted that false negative or false positive results may occur due to changes in the intestinal flora. For example, the use of antibiotics, excessive growth of the small intestine, intestinal dyskinesia or insufficient hydrogen production bacteria, smoking, sleep, and exercise may also affect the outcome.
The importance of developing lactose-free foods
So far, the lactose-free diet is the only way to treat lactose intolerance. Completely avoiding lactose can heal the intestines and address undernutrition and other related symptoms. Strict adherence to a lactose-free diet can also reduce the risk of many serious long-term complications associated with untreated lactose intolerance.
However, avoiding lactose and following a lactose-free diet seems simple, even if it becomes more difficult because it involves not only eliminating all lactose-containing products, but also constant monitoring, but also social isolation and stress. Since most dairy products on the market contain lactose, avoiding these products can lead to radical changes in lifestyle, but this does not apply to everyone. For these reasons, consumer demand for nutritional and sensory properties of lactose-free products is maximized.
Specific considerations for developing lactose-free products
4.1 Avoid sources of lactose
The primary consideration in developing lactose-free products involves the elimination of foods or food ingredients that contain lactose because it triggers lactose intolerance. Thanks to the recent intensive efforts of researchers, large quantities of lactose-free and low-lactose milk and dairy products are available in most supermarkets in Western countries, and their nutritional content is similar to that of regular milk and dairy products.
4.2 alternate source
Avoiding lactose-containing foods leads to the exclusion of major carbohydrate (lactose) sources from milk and dairy products. Lactase-treated dairy products or oral lactase supplements may be selected to replace lactose-containing foods or to eliminate dairy products.
Animals and human milk contain high levels of lactose, and complete removal of lactose from the diet can lead to calcium deficiency in children. Osteoporosis in adulthood leads to osteoporosis and can lead to fractures. Therefore, in order to obtain the nutrients required by the human body corresponding to a specific age group, there is an urgent need for a study to explore and develop alternative sources.
4.3 Ensure that the sensory properties of the product are consistent with the consumer's perception of liquid milk
The demand for lactose-free dairy/health foods continues to increase as consumers become more aware of health and provide alternatives to a large number of lactose intolerances. Therefore, it is important to understand the sensory characteristics of lactose-free milk and its products compared to regular milk, as the acceptance of dairy products is primarily sensory-driven].
Therefore, consumer awareness is essential before developing such products. Probiotic milk is attractive to both dairy and non-dairy consumers. Because of the large number of nutrients, American diet guidelines recommend drinking milk.
However, due to belief in lactose intolerance, non-dairy beverages are recommended for lactose intolerant patients, including milk substitutes in federal food programs. Recent consumer perceptions and studies of accepting alternative beverages have shown that consumers have a significantly higher preference for lactose-free milk than all soy drinks. In addition, skim milk is more acceptable than milk.
4.4 Nutritional value of lactose-free products
Studies have shown that patients who strictly follow the lactose-free diet often develop various nutritional deficiencies, resulting in various health disadvantages such as immune dysfunction and colon health. Milk and dairy products are classified as nutritious foods.
However, these products have an advantage over other foods, namely rich in calcium, which is one of the important engines to promote the development of the dairy industry. By increasing the amount of cheese and yogurt, you can use the right amount of energy (fat) to meet your needs by keeping less than 12 grams of lactose per meal. Therefore, such dairy products can meet the calcium needs of people with lactose intolerance.
4.5 Meet the RDA requirements
RDA (recommended dietary intake) refers to the average daily dietary nutrient intake at a given age of life sufficient to meet the nutritional needs of nearly 97-98% of healthy individuals.
It has been observed that lactose-free diets often contain lower levels of certain nutrients, ie, 0.01% lactose, with a glucose and galactose content of about 1.4%, respectively. Due to the low carbohydrate content, the product also contains less energy than the corresponding traditional product, with an energy content of about 83%, indicating that the RDA for individual nutritional needs is not being met.
According to the available literature, adherence to a lactose-free diet imposes an economic burden on patients because lactose-free products on the market are much more expensive than lactose-containing products. One study analyzed changes in the price of lactose- and lactose-free milk and dairy products and reported that all lactose-free products on the market are expensive compared to lactose-containing foods.
Since milk and dairy products are important suppliers of protein, vitamins, and minerals (especially calcium), it is not feasible to completely avoid these products. However, when the price of lactose-free products is too different from that of lactose-containing products, individuals may reduce their milk consumption to avoid additional food expenditures.
Therefore, in developing these foods, the cost of lactose-free products must be considered to avoid placing an additional financial burden on the patient.
Infant lactose intolerance affects the intake of lactose in the diet by 75% of the world's population and is significantly increased as this is usually not diagnosed. The only treatment for people with lactose problems is to stick to lactose-free foods.
However, lifelong adherence to a lactose-free diet can lead to nutritional imbalances in patients. Therefore, there is a strong need to develop nutritious and economically lactose-free foods while considering several priorities (excluding all raw materials that may contain lactose, choosing alternative milk sources, acceptable consistency and color of the product, and improving product nutrition) Quality, product safety and labeling). These considerations will help develop healthy, lactose-free, nutritious and safe foods for patients with lactose intolerance.